To start, this article will mostly be about fungi that grow along the Olentangy rather than the fungi that grow in it. There are fungi that play important roles in decomposing submerged leaf litter and wood, and some that are major parasites of aquatic animals, but these are mostly microscopic and unlikely to be encountered unless you really set out to find them.
So, what are fungi? If you have come across old enough biology textbooks, you will have learned that fungi are a sort of plant. They are vaguely plant-like, but fungi are now considered to belong in their own kingdom more closely related to animals than any other major group of organisms. Like us, fungi “eat”, but they “eat” by dumping enzymes into or around the things they grow on rather than doing this in a specialized digestive tract within their bodies.
Fungi play three main roles in our environment, and those are decomposer, mutualist and parasite. Some fungi combine these roles, or play some other stranger role, but for the most part, the fungi mentioned here will fit into one of these three major ecological categories.
Most of the fungi that grow along the Olentangy are decomposers of wood, leaves, and other plant materials. Fungi are the most effective wood decomposers in our forests, and without them, our forest floors would have much thicker layers of fallen twigs and branches. Many of the major wood decomposing fungi produce mushrooms, and these mushrooms are then fed upon by animals, cycling nutrients from dead plants back into our ecosystems. Squirrels, deer, box turtles and many sorts of insects and other invertebrates use fungi as a major food source. Humans too. Some of you may know one or two of the Ohioan variety who feed on morels (Morchella species) in the Spring.
What exactly is a mushroom then? In the broad sense of the term, a mushroom is a spore-producing structure of a fungus that can be seen with the naked eye and the organism that produces it. Fungi are made up of microscopic, thread-like cells called mycelium, and most of this mycelium forms networks within whatever the fungi are growing on and are usually difficult to observe without a microscope. When you see a mushroom growing on a log, the portion you are observing is part of a much larger organism spread out within this log.
When the Olentangy floods its banks and leaves behind piles of woody debris, the sticks within these piles contain the mycelium of hundreds if not thousands of species of fungi, some of which will form mushrooms when the environmental conditions are right. This fungal “rafting” is one of the major ways that fungi can spread along the Olentangy along with spreading by spores.
One especially common wood-decomposing mushroom species in our area is Cerioporus squamosus, commonly known as the “dryad’s saddle” or “pheasant back”. These produce large shelf-like mushrooms on large fallen logs, dead stumps, and on the dead portions of living trees. The tops, or “caps”, of these mushrooms are brown and have darker brown scales on them that make a pattern somewhat like that of the feathers on a pheasant’s back, hence the common name. The underside of the cap contains many off-white pores where the spores are produced.
Cerioporus squamosus is edible and it often begins before morels do in the Spring. It is not as flavorful as morels, but still perfectly edible when young and tender. It has been eaten by many disappointed morel hunters.
Many of the more sought-after edible mushrooms in Ohio are species that form mutualistic relationships with tree roots. These species produce meshes of plant root tips and fungal mycelium known as “mycorrhizae” where the trees provide carbohydrates to the fungal partner and the fungi provide water and vital minerals to the tree partner. Many sorts of tree in Ohio form mycorrhizae with mushroom-forming fungi, including oaks, hickories, beech, basswood, pines, and spruce. In the floodplains of the Olentangy, the most important mycorrhizal tree species is the cottonwood, although its mushroom partners are mostly either very small or potentially poisonous. There is a greater diversity of mushrooms that form mycorrhizal relationships as you head further from the Olentangy and uphill. The oak-hickory ridge tops along the Olentangy are a great place to see a wide diversity of mushrooms in the Summer and Fall.
One of the more common and charismatic mycorrhizal that grows in our forests from mid-Summer to the early Fall is Cantharellus lateritius, the “smooth chanterelle”. It forms mycorrhizal relationships with hardwood trees and produces bright orange trumpet-shaped mushrooms with caps that have a central depression and an underside that is either smooth or has blunt ridges. It often fruits in large quantities and stands out well against the brown and green of the forest floor. It has a faint fruity odor and has a meaty texture. I have also seen it being eaten by box turtles several times in Central Ohio.
The third major ecological category of fungi, the parasites, are very diverse, although mostly microscopic. There are parasitic fungi that parasitize almost every sort of life form there is. The are fungi that are parasites on plants, animals, and even other fungi. There are even fungi that are parasites on other parasitic fungi, and these are known as hyperparasites. Some of the stranger parasitic fungi are those that parasitize insects, also known as entomopathogens. These invade the tissues of the host insect and kill them before bursting through their exoskeleton to produce a fruiting structure. There are some that are able to take control of the host insect’s brain and make it climb to a more suitable place for the fungus to produce spores before killing it.
One especially bizarre example is Massospora cicadina, the “flying saltshaker of death”, which parasitizes cicadas and eventually replaces the host’s abdomen with its own spore producing surface before killing it. The cicada continues to fly around with its abdomen missing “shaking” spores into the air as it goes and will even attempt to mate with other cicadas in this state, further spreading the fungal infection to other cicadas. The fungus produces cathinone, an amphetamine that is also present in the qat tree used as a stimulant in the Arabian Peninsula and the Horn of Africa. The cathinone apparently makes the cicada unaware of its missing body parts and allows it to continue to fly around before the fungus completely burns it out and kills it.
There are many bizarre and widely varied species of fungi that grow in our area, and my current best estimate is that there are at least 5,100 species of fungi in Ohio. Because of this, if you look closely at the fungal diversity around you as you walk through our woods, you will very often come across something you have never seen before, maybe even something nobody else has ever noticed before. For those wanting to learn more about mushrooms in Ohio, the Ohio Mushroom Society puts on several yearly mushroom events, or “forays”, where you can have the mushrooms you find identified by mushroom experts and just have a lot of fun in the woods. For more information about the Ohio Mushroom Society, refer to their website at https://ohiomushroomsociety.wordpress.com/.
Student research assistant to Dr. Jason Slot
Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210
The Olentangy Watershed is currently home to 283,000 people. The Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC) expects this number to nearly double to 500,000 by 2050. With more people comes more development and more impervious surface. Maintaining a healthy watershed with this growth is a challenge that requires careful planning and coordination among several key stakeholders. FLOW’s Greenspace Plan is the first step of such coordination, ensuring that we are protecting and restoring the right places.
FLOW received funding from The Columbus Foundation to produce the Lower Olentangy Greenspace Plan. This was designed as a proactive planning effort to target the protection of high quality areas for the protection of the Olentangy watershed, while accommodating people’s needs for access to greenspace. The Greenspace Plan illuminates the value of accurately inventorying our existing natural resources, provides a framework to educate our citizens, and serves as a tool for prioritizing future efforts and making informed decisions.
The value of greenspace must be recognized for the ‘eco-services’ it provides. We can no longer think of greenspace as “just undeveloped” land. Greenspace provides very quantifiable benefits that cannot be replaced by any other means. Greenspace provides habitat, biodiversity, clean air, healthy places to recreate and heal, and mitigates heat island effects.
The Greenspace Plan assigned scores to land using 22 variables related to ecological resources and opportunities for restoration and protection. The scores were a result of weighting each variable and adding the weighted values of all variables for a particular piece of land. This was completed throughout the entire Lower Olentangy watershed. These were then categorized into five Greenspace Tiers, where Tier 1 represents those areas most important for water quality protection, and Tier 5 displaying the least opportunity for water quality protection. However, greenspace could exist in any of these tiers. Protection of these spaces may be more important within Tiers 1 and 2, whereas greenspace may need to be crated in Tiers 4 and 5.
This Greenspace Plan has been summarized in a report, and the results can be freely accessed here. We hope our partners take advantage of this Greenspace effort for future planning. According to the Trust for Public Lands, the average greenspace in the 100 largest cities in the U.S. covers 15% of their total area. Currently, the Olentangy only has 9% greenspace, and that is without the development anticipated by 2050. Now is the time to plan appropriately for adequate protection of our waterways, and FLOW is now turning its attention to using our Greenspace Plan to prioritize our restoration efforts.
During the October Board meeting of The Friends of the Olentangy Watershed, the Board members discussed our support of the City of Columbus Community Choice Aggregation placed on the November ballot as Issue 1.
Aggregation initiatives like this have passed in more than 400 communities in Ohio, including Cleveland and Cincinnati. If this amendment passes, Columbus would become the largest city in the Midwest to group citizen buying power for local clean energy, reducing carbon emissions by an estimated 1.2 million metric tons , a 19 percent reduction for the city.
Issue 1 would allow city leaders to contract for competitively priced electricity for its residents. This electricity would be clean electricity and would be available to those who choose to opt in. Voting for Issue 1 does not require the city residents to use the clean electricity, but gives the option for the city to purchase clean electricity in large quantities for those who do choose to opt in to the program.
We feel voting for Issue 1 would provide an opportunity for the City of Columbus to continue to move forward in allowing its residence to choose to maintain and increase the environmental health of our community, ultimately supporting the environmental health of our watershed.
For more information, please call: 866-856-5654 or contact the City of Columbus directly at CleanEnergyCCA@columbus.gov.
Lindalee has been a FLOW volunteer since 2011. She has served on the board, has volunteered for several projects and has been the newsletter editor for the past 5 years. Linda Lee is also the Arbor Chairman for Old Beechwold, which has a ravine, creek, and woodlands and is a master gardener with a special interest in native plants and woodlands.
Lindalee has a lifelong interest in nature, something learned from her father. As a child, her best toy was the creek behind her house.
Lindalee also volunteers for Gethsemane Lutheran Church helping the elderly and families in need.
We so appreciate all the work Lindalee has done with FLOW and the watershed.
Joe started volunteering with FLOW senior year of high school in the Water Quality Monitoring Program. He has continued to volunteer with FLOW on many different projects throughout the years. Joe was critical in assisting FLOW with creating the Lower Olentangy Greenspace Plan.
Joe says he volunteers with FLOW for the trees and for the bugs and especially for the people. If you have had the honor of volunteering with Joe, you know his drive to complete a task, as well as his sense of humor, keeps one motivated when planting hundreds of trees in one morning!
Joe has a Bachelor of Science degree in Environmental Science from The Ohio State University and works at AEP as a GIS Specialist.
FLOW could not accomplish all we do without great volunteers like Joe!
Planting for Mother’s Day….or later in the week???? Please save your quart-sized (3-4 inch) pots for us!!!!
We will collect next Sunday, May 17 from 2-4 in the alley behind the FLOW office (3528 N. High St). Please come to the alley out back and stay in your car. We will have a table set up so you can just drive up, drop off, and keep going!
Thank you so very much for supporting us!
Dear FLOW Volunteers and Members,
Due to the recommendations of the Governor and and the CDC we will be canceling or rescheduling all upcoming events through April 9th. We will re-assess at that time for later events. Please stay tuned for updates and in the meantime stay safe and healthy!
Paul has been a consistent volunteer with FLOW for over a year and is known as our “Chainsaw Guy”. Paul is chainsaw certified and has been integral in our honeysuckle and invasive species removal throughout the Olentangy Watershed.
In addition to his chainsaw skills, Paul has participated in river clean ups, tree plantings and is an active member on FLOW’s Science and Zoning Committee while also assisting with fundraising for our April Earth Day events.
Paul enjoys volunteering with FLOW in order to get outdoor exercise while doing good for the community and the world. He states he has met some great like minded people and finds the work uplifting and encouraging.
Paul is a graduate of The Ohio State University with a B.S. in architecture from the department of engineering. He is currently the lead Architect working with the Worthington Schools revitalization project at Schorr Architects.
Paul enjoys bee keeping, kayaking, hiking, biking and working outside and is also active in the Worthington community with other organizations.
FLOW couldn’t accomplish all that we do without great volunteers like Paul. Thanks for your passion and dedication!